Conversion & Calculators
With these calculators you can calculate Anglo-American units to the standards units (SI-units). This may be useful, because most American and British use American or British units and European use the standard metric units. With the conversion calculators you can convert the units that are most commonly used.
Surface / Area
Many industrial and domestic water users are concerned about the hardness of their water. Hard water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling in boilers and industrial equipment. Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. Water is an excellent solvent and readily dissolves minerals it comes in contact with. As water moves through soil and rock, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. Calcium and magnesium dissolved in water are the two most common minerals that make water "hard".
Hardness, Calcium as CaCO3
Hardness, Magnesium as CaCO3
Total Hardness as CaCO3
Hardness, Total as Ca (Calc)
Ionic Balance Calculator
The ion balance is used to check analytical results. Total anions must be in balance with total cations. Therefore the sum of the concentrations of anions should equal the total concentration of cations and the ratio of total anions to total cations should be 1. The concentrations in this case must be in terms of ion equivalents. The graphical representation of ion equivalent concentrations helps you to visualise the characteristics of the water in terms of its principal dissolved salts.
Sum of Cations
Sum of Anions
Langelier Saturation Index
The Langelier Index is an approximate measure of the saturation degree of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in water. It is calculated using the Hydrogen Ion (pH) , Bicarbonate content (HCO3-), Calcium concentration, Total Dissolved Solids, and water temperature of a tap water sample. The Langelier Index (LI) is calculated as follows:
LI = pH (pH Value) - pHs (Saturation pH)
The Langelier Index is one of several tools used by water operators for stabilising water to control both internal corrosion and the deposition of scale. Water supply operators can optimise their water supply systems and identify leakage potentials with the Langelier Index.
pH value of the water
Conductivity of the water [TDS value]
Calcium content (Ca)
Bicarbonate content (HCO3-)
The calculated pHs value is 0.00, resulting in a LSI of 0.0000.
Indication based on Langelier Index
Indication based on Langelier by Carrier